Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets
The U.S. State Department’s Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets paid special attention to the issue of looted art. Representatives of more than forty countries and Jewish organizations attended the conference.
As a result of the conference the Washington Conference Principles On Nazi-Confiscated Art were declared.
Resolution of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
On 5th November 1999, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, representing forty-one nations, unanimously passed Resolution 1205, calling for the restitution of looted Jewish cultural property in Europe.
Vilnius International Forum
In 2000, the Lithuanian government organized the Vilnius International Forum on Holocaust Era Looted Cultural Assets. As a result of the conference, the Vilnius Forum Declaration was drafted to ask all governments to reach just and fair solutions to restitute looted art.
European Parliament Resolution and Report of Committee on Legal Affairs and the Internal Market
In November 2003, the European Parliament passed the Resolution and Report of Committee on Legal Affairs and the Internal Market. The resolution was passed in a vote of the European Parliament on 17 December 2003 with 487 in favor, 10 against and 16 abstentions.
Prague Holocaust Era Assets Conference
Between June 26 and 30, 2009, 47 nations, observer countries, and relevant non-governmental organizations including the Claims Conference and the WJRO convened for a follow-up to the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets in Prague.
List of participating countries
Proceedings of the conference
On June 30, 2009, the 47 states attending the Prague Conference on Holocaust Era Assets, signed the Terezin Declaration. The Declaration calls, among other things, to strengthen and sustain previous efforts, notably those by the Washington Conference to ensure just and fair solutions regarding cultural property, including Judaica which was looted or displaced during or as a result of the Holocaust (Shoah). In regard to Looted Art, the Declaration calls for the recognition that restitution cannot be accomplished without the knowledge of potentially looted art and cultural property. It therefore calls for continuous provenance research, in addition to an ongoing effort to make available results on the internet, with due regard to privacy rules and regulations. Concerning Judaica and Jewish Cultural Property, the Declaration calls for “Recognizing the urgent need to identify ways to achieve a just and fair solution to the issue of Judaica and Jewish cultural property, where original owners, or heirs of former original Jewish owners, individuals or legal persons cannot be identified, while acknowledging there is no universal model.” Moreover, the Declaration notes that measures for the protection of sacred scrolls and ceremonial objects should be taken and where these items are currently in government hands to make them available for synagogue use where needed.
European Shoah Legacy Institute (ESLI)
The institute continues the work of the Prague Conference and the Terezin Declaration and “serve(s) as a voluntary forum for countries, organizations representing Holocaust (Shoah) survivors and other Nazi victims, and NGOs to note and promote developments in the areas covered by the Conference and this Declaration, and to develop and share best practices and guidelines in these areas and as indicated in paragraph four of Immovable (Real) Property.” To this end, the institute plans on publishing regular reports, including reports on looted art and Judaica.
Resolutions of the Association of European Jewish Museums (AEJM), the Council of American Jewish Museums (CAJM), and the Association of Jewish Libraries (AJL)
As part of the Claims Conference / WJRO Looted Art and Cultural Property Initiative, discussions have been held with the Association of European Jewish Museums (AEJM), the Council of American Jewish Museums (CAJM), and the Association of Jewish Libraries (AJL) regarding the need for Jewish museums to examine the provenance of their collections.
ICOM – International Council of Museums
In 1999, ICOM adopted recommendations concerning the Return of Works of Art Belonging to Jewish Owners.
In 2006, ICOM issued a revised Code of Ethics for Museums, which sets the minimum standards of professional practice and performance for museums and their staff.
Declarations of Art Organizations
In November 2001, the Canadian Museum Association and the Canadian Jewish Congress issued recommendations on Holocaust-era Cultural Property. The text of the resolution can be found here.
In 2001, the German government, its federal states and municipal head organizations adopted guidelines concerning the research and restitution of looted Jewish cultural property during National-Socialism. The text of the guidelines can be found here. Please note that the text only exists in German.
In 1998, the National Museum Directors’ Conference adopted recommendations on the Spoliation of Works of Art during the Holocaust and World War II period.
The Art Dealers Association of America (ADAA) adopted a Code of Ethics and Professional Practices.
In 1998, the Association of Art Museum Directors (AAMD) issued a Report of the AAMD Task Force on the Spoliation of Art during the Nazi/World War II Era (1933-1945).
The American Alliance of Museums (AAM) issued Standards Regarding the Unlawful Appropriation of Objects During the Nazi Era.